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Domain Name Glossary of Terms

 

Additional Servers: Any name servers, aside from the primary and secondary name servers listed on the Domain Name Registration Agreement, that will be available to resolve a particular domain name to its corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) number(s).

Administrative Contact/Agent: The administrative contact/agent is an individual authorized to interact with Nic.LC on behalf of the domain name registrant. The administrative contact/agent should be able to answer non-technical questions about the domain name's registration and the domain name registrant. It is strongly recommended that the administrative contact/agent be the registrant or someone from the registrant's organization.

Billing Contact/Agent: The billing contact is the person designated to receive the invoice for domain name registration and re-registration fees. The billing contact should be in a position to ensure prompt payment of fees.

Contact/Agent: Contacts/Agents are individuals or groups who represent the registrant on matters related to the registrant's domain name. There are three types of contacts/agents: administrative, technical, and billing. The entity listed as the administrative, technical, or billing contact/agent should be the entity best able to answer questions about that particular aspect of the domain name's registration, and should be authorized to represent the domain name registrant. A contact/agent may be a single person or may be a group or organization where several individuals act in a "role" (e.g., Internet Service Provider Support Center).

Domain Name System (DNS): A distributed database of information that is used to translate domain names, which are easy for humans to remember and use, into Internet Protocol (IP) numbers, which are what computers need to find each other on the Internet. People working on computers around the globe maintain their specific portion of this database, and the data held in each portion of the database is made available to all computers and users on the Internet. The DNS comprises computers, data files, software, and people working together.

Domain Name: An addressing construct used for identifying and locating computers on the Internet. Domain names provide a system of easy-to-remember Internet addresses, which can be translated by the Domain Name System (DNS) into the numeric addresses (Internet Protocol (IP) numbers) used by the network. A domain name is hierarchical and often conveys information about the type of entity using the domain name. A domain name is simply a label that represents a domain, which is a subset of the total domain name space. Domain names at the same level of the hierarchy must be unique. Thus, for example, there can be only one .lc at the top-level of the hierarchy, and only one NIC.lc at the next level of the hierarchy.

Domain: A subset of the total domain name space. A domain represents a level of the hierarchy in the Domain Name Space, and is represented by a domain name. For example, the domain name NIC.lc represents the second level domain NIC which is a subset, or sub-domain, of the top-level domain LC, which is in turn a larger subset of the total Domain Name Space. If you think of the Domain Name Space as a tree, a domain would be analogous to a limb and would encompass all of the branches off of that limb.

Domain Name Space: An Internet addressing scheme that is hierarchical in nature and uses a "tree" structure to organize information that describes networks and computers. The domain name space is the sum total of domain names that currently represent networks and computers, as well as all of the possible domain names - not yet in use - which may potentially represent networks and computers. Also, the realm of networks, computers, and other network devices that can be described and represented by the Domain Name System (DNS).

Host (Name Server): At Nic.LC, the term is most often used to refer to name servers, the computers that have both the software and the data required to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.

IP Address: This term is used to refer to the physical protocol address given to every computer on the Internet, that allows other computers to communicate with it. With the current version of IP v 4.0 (IPv4), the Internet Protocol (IP) numbers consist of four octets, each going from 0 to 255. Valid example include: 208.44.243.191. Invalid example include: 257.245.234.2, since the first octet (257) is greater than 255.

Maintenance: The processing, research, support, and administration involved in creating domain name records, contact records, and host records. Maintenance includes, but is not limited to, posting changes to these records as they are submitted; keeping Nic.LC's database of domain, contact, and host information updated; resolving requests for access to domain names, websites and email addresses; and ensuring that the zone files for the top-level domain servers reflect current information.

Modification: The process of updating an existing domain name record, contact record, or host (name server) record to reflect changes in existing information. Modifications include: changing information on an existing contact record; replacing an existing contact on a domain name record with a new contact; changing information on an existing host record; changing the name servers listed on an existing domain name record; changing information about the organization who registered a domain name (there are some cases when changes in the organization's name may require a new, separate registration). There may be additional charges to modify an existing domain, contact, or host record. Keeping these records up to date is critical to the smooth operation of the Domain Name System (DNS), and it is the responsibility of the registrant to ensure that domain name record(s) are kept up to date.

Name Server: Also called a host or a name server. A computer that has both the software and the data (zone files) needed to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.

NIC Handle or Contact ID: A NIC Handle or Contact ID is a unique identifier, which can be up to 10 alpha-numeric characters, assigned to each domain name record, contact record, and network record in Nic.LC's domain name database. NIC handles and Contact IDs should be used on registration forms whenever possible, as they save time and help to ensure accuracy in the records.

Primary Server: On Nic.LC's Domain Name Registration Agreement, the section where the registrant indicates the host name and Internet Protocol (IP) number of the name server that will contain authoritative information for the domain name and will be used to resolve that domain name to its corresponding IP number(s). The designation of "primary" means that this name server will be used first and will be relied upon before any of the other name servers that may be listed on the Service Agreement. The primary server section of the Agreement is a required section and the domain name registration will not be processed unless this section of the Domain Name Registration Agreement is completed accurately.

Registrant: The individual or organization that registers a specific domain name with Nic.LC. This individual or organization holds the right to use that specific domain name for a specified period of time, provided certain conditions are met and the registration fees are paid. This person or organization is the "legal entity" bound by the terms of the Service Agreement.

Registration: The process through which individuals and organizations obtain a domain name. Registration of a domain name enables the individual or organization to use that particular domain name for a specified period of time, provided certain conditions are met and payment for services is made. Registering of a new domain name with Nic.LC is accomplished by completing and submitting the Registration Service Agreement, thereby agreeing to be bound by the terms and conditions of the then existing Domain Name Registration Agreement, including the Domain Name Dispute Policy, and paying the registration fees.

Registration Fee: The charge for registering a Web Address or domain name. Nic.LC's registration fee covers the cost of processing the initial registration and maintaining the domain name record for up to 10 years. After the initial registration period, the domain name is subject to renewal and the renewal fees will be due on an annual basis if the registrant wishes to renew the domain name's registration.

Registration Forms: Forms that are used to submit and process registration requests. These forms, which include the Registration Service Agreement, Contact Form, and Host Form, are used to register new domain names, new contacts for domain names, and new hosts (name servers) as well as to update domain name, contact, and host records. There are both Web versions and plain text (ASCII) versions of the forms.

Re-registration: The process of reinitiating a domain name's registration for a specified period of time. Renewing an existing domain name with Nic.LC is accomplished by simply paying the renewal fee which covers one year of continued registration and maintenance, and agreeing to be bound by the terms and conditions of the then existing Registration Service Agreement, including the Domain Name Dispute Policy.

Re-registration Fee: The charge for renewing an existing domain name registration. Nic.LC's re-registration fee covers one year of maintenance for the domain name record and is assessed each year on the anniversary of the original registration. The fee is $75.00 USD for each.lc; $50 USD for each .COM.lc, .NET.lc, .CO.lc and .ORG.lc, after the initial registration period.

Secondary Server: On Nic.LC's Domain Name Registration Agreement, the section where the registrant indicates the hostname and Internet Protocol (IP) number of a name server that will contain authoritative data for the domain name being registered and will resolve that domain name to its corresponding IP number(s). The designation of "secondary" indicates that the name server will be used in addition to and as a backup for the primary name server that is listed on the Service Agreement.

Second Level Domain: In the Domain Name System (DNS), the next lower level of the hierarchy underneath the top level domains. In a domain name, that portion of the domain name that appears immediately to the left of the top-level domain. For example, the NIC in NIC.lc. Second level domain names are often descriptive and have come to be used increasingly to represent businesses and other commercial concerns on the Internet.

Service Agreement: The legally binding contract between Nic.LC and the individual or organization applying for a domain name. The Registration Service Agreement must be completed and submitted electronically to register a new domain name with Nic.LC. The Service Agreement is also the form used to update information in a domain name record.

Technical Contact/Agent: The technical contact is the person or organization who maintains the primary domain name server. The technical contact should be able to answer technical questions about the domain name's primary domain name server and work with technically-oriented people in other domains to solve technical problems that affect the domain name.

Top-level Domain (TLD): In the Domain Name System (DNS), the highest level of the hierarchy after the root. In a domain name, that portion of the domain name that appears furthest to the right. For example, the LC in NIC.LC.

Zone File: A file that contains data describing a portion of the domain name space. Zone files contain the information needed to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.

 

 

 
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